In 1902, Burma Epigraphy Office was founded under the British rule. This Office collected antiquities throughout the country. After Myanmar gained her independence in 1948, Burma Epigraphy Office was reorganized as Department of Archaeology in 1957 under the Ministry of Culture. In August 1954, the Department of Cultural Institute was established under the Ministry of Culture with the National Library, the National Museum and Art Institute. The Ministry of Culture formed the Cultural Council in October 1954. Cultural Council established the Libraries and Museums in the States and Divisionsin 1955. The Cultural Council was abolished in 1963 and libraries and Museums were handed over the Department of Cultural Institute. On 9 February 2007, Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library was renamed in combination of Department of Archaeology and the Department of Cultural Institute. At present , Department of Archaeology ,
National Museum and Library is the takes charge of Myanmar Cultural heritage including tangible and intangible culture, National Museum, National Library and Cultural museums and libraries in states and divisions. This department is situated at Office No.35, Nay PyiTaw.
- making research and excavate in order to find out the pre-historic cultural assets;
- making field research to find out historic ancient sites;
- excavating in those historic sites in order to reveal the ancient culture;
- supervising the registration of the cultural properties and antiques, to control over illicit trafficking, transfer, exports and imports:
- Recording and making the inventory list of the cultural heritage monument and sites;
- Preserving the Myanmar cultural heritage monuments, the mural painting, stucco carvings by means of scientific methods;
- Collecting , deciphering and carrying out research on ancient stone inscription, ink inscription and inscriptions of bells;
- Writing and publishing the research papers, books and periodical to educate the public;
- Creating the pleasant Myanmar ancient cultural heritage sites;
- Establishing the National Museum, Archaeological Museums, State and Divisional Cultural Museums and collect the Myanmar cultural heritage materials in order too preserve and display.
- Displaying the collected materials not only permanent display but also temporary display weekly in National Museum to keep abreast with the time.
- Doing research and explore the history of collected cultural heritage materials.
- Compiling and publishing the Museum Guidebooks and pamphlets continuously.
- Establishing the National Library and State and Division Cultural Libraries , to collect the rare palm-leaf manuscripts, parabaik manuscripts ( folded paper books), ancient treatise and literature, to compile the national bibliography yearly and to arrange to be accessible to the public and to publish the rare books and manuscripts.
- Compiling and publishing the cultural traditions of Myanmar national races by means of researching.
- Exchanging and acquiring books and other library materials with international libraries by means of exchange programmes continuously.
- Educating the public to cherish the value of ancient cultural heritage